The most sought-after aim of the world today is achieving and economic growth fast enough to improve the life and living condition of our teeming millions.the developed World has already got the required living standard but they still want further improvement.but we require high technology with some new inputs which are really cheap and effective enough to meet the prevailing requirement along with the future aspiration of the countries like India. Among the ‘new inputs’ comes biotechnology, which is the new technique aiming at revolutionising different walk of life such as medicine, industry, agriculture, animal husbandry, environment and pollution control.
Man has been exploiting biotechnology four thousands of years to make bread, to foment alcohol, to produce cheese add for a shorter period to treat sewage. But the term biotechnology was coined during the late 1970s. It is a multi disciplinary subject from the integrated use of Life science, chemical science and engineering science. As elegant and expedient definition of biotechnology is the manipulation of living organism and biological processes to provide useful product, to manufacturing industries. It is the technological exploitation and control of biological system and microorganism are their components to provide certain goods and services. Biotechnology take the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of material by biological agent. These biological agent are enzymes, micro organism, unicellular are multicellular plants and animals. Now these biological agents are again being modified through genetic engineering are recombination DNA technique, too suit to the need of the mankind.
Biotechnology includes various type of techniques, namely, recombinant DNA technology for genetic engineering, protoplast fusion, hybridoma technology, cell culture, tissue culture, Germ plasma development, enzyme and protein engineering, fermentation, bioconversion and immobilization of cell and cellular product.
Biotechnology has immense potential for use in agriculture, forestry, horticulture, medicine, health, chemical industry, food industry, pollution control and environment. The modern world has laid its future shops on this technology for or subsistence and all around progress and development. Residents of this plants are facing many problem and it is hoped that if the same progress be followed in the approach towards the curtailing the prevailing condition, then it will go on enhancing further. First and foremost is the problem of population, we have to fetter it. Food consumption is far below the required standard in developing countries. Environmental quality is deteriorating every fraction of the time known. Agricultural soil is also getting Deteriorated widely. Energy e resources are going away from our treasury. So, we need non fuel minerals for the purpose. Mankind is facing new damages to human health through microbial and non microbial diseases like cancer and AIDS. Biotechnology has promised some alternatives or solution to the problem mention about.
Probably application of biotechnology includes development of better and cheaper drugs, better antifertility agents, hormone production, immunologists kits, vaccine for cancer and gene therapy. Monodonal antibodies MABs are used in the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease and cancer in connection of a drugs overdose, treatment of cancer. Different pharmaceutical like interferon insulin and other hormones, antibiotics, human virokinose, etc, have been produced by recombinant DNA technology. Production of interferon which is a wonder protein drug for cancer and viral diseases and yumen insulin which is a hormone required to rectify diabetes has been revolutioned through biotechnological applications. A hormone, somatostatin 5 mg of which was produced from half a million Sheep brains up now be reduced from a 9 bacterial culture.
Gene therapy and development of multi disease vaccine are the other areas where biotechnology is expected to yield wonder. It might be possible to rectify the hereditary disease true 2 gene therapy with the recent achievement in laboratory animals, that is producing large size mice bank transfer of growth hormones gene, the possibilities of eugenic creating desired humans are seen bright. What is considered animagination today my turn out to be reality in not too distant future.
Man drives food mainly formed plants and animal resources. Biotechnology holds a tremendous potentialin improving these resources in various ways. Improvement of crop plants through genetic manipulation would go a long way in meeting this escalating necessities of food. Some useful traits like herbicide, drought,frost and pest resistance might be transferred two important crop species already been made in transforming the frost resistance genes into crop plant. Work is being done on increasing growth rate, photosynthesis ability and nitrogen fixation in plant through genetic tool of biotechnology.
The production of microbial protein has been practiced since World war 1, when Debruch in Berlin developed Drewer’s yeast on large scale. The cells we are mainly incorporated into soups and sauces. It is known as SCP (single cell protein). It is a potential protein source food for humans and animals. For human use, microbes used are primarily, ‘Saccharomyces Cerevisiae’ and ‘ Condida Utilis’. Further, biotechnology has a market impact in the the sweetener industry. Bakers yeast wine, beer, sour hunch bread, yoghurt, cheese, vinegar are some of the foods and the beverages obtained from microorganism.
recently a protein that increase milk production in in dairy cows and improve feed utilisation, has been produced with the help of genetic engineering techniques in USA. This protein is expected to be commercialized in a couple of years to increase the economy and efficiency of dairy farming all over the world.
The variety of toxic and non toxic wastes expelled everyday bi industry are causing serious threat to human life through environmental pollution. One important method of eliminating wastes is through biodegradation. A Superbug, Pseudomonads Putida, created by an Indian scientist in USA, doctor Chakravarthy true search techniques can scavenge oil in sea. many other such as organism could be created to degrade and detoxify a variety of harmful chemical in the environment. The communicable disease can be prevented through vector control. Biogas generation form waste has proved its utility in various ways. Sewage treatment is carried out by aerobic and anaerobic microorganism. The effluent form yeast oil and cider breweries, from diaries and form potato starch factory can be efficiently processed by an anaerobic process in which the the active biological compound is recycle and a a hitch produces less residual sludge as well has less offensive ordours. This should avoid the possible ill effect on human health had such animal and plant species as are useful to mankind.
Production of fine chemicals from agriculture wastes through microbial processes, plant cell, animal cell, production of antibiotics, vitamins, amino acids, biofuel employing microbial transformation and preservation of industrial products form spoilage are some of the major application of of biotechnology industry.
The existing petrochemicals and other sources of energy are depleting fast with the advancement of modern world. The solution to this problem seems to come through biotechnology. Processes have been developed for generating liquid and gaseous biofuels in recent year. Ethanol among liquid and mathan among these was biofuel institute important alternatives to caol, wood, oil petroleum and other existing sources of energy. Various waste materials are being used for bio converting them into biofuels by such microorganism.
Sugarcane, banana, vegetable crops and orchids have already been commercially produced using tissue culture in India. And in the time to come tissue culture technology will also be applied for bamboo, mustard, rice, sandalwood and other agricultural fields. From nutritional point of view, plant proteins suffer from amino acid imbalance. By genetic engineering, it may be possible to correct the imbalance of amino acid profiles in seed proteins.
The process of biological nitrogen fixation is carried out by free living and symbiotic microorganism. The symbiotic microorganism from association with other plants to fix nitrogen. By the presence of this microorganism in the root nodules of leguminous, plant result in improved grain yield.
In the veterinary field, biotechnological application include utilisation of hybridoma technology for animal health care production of sage and efficient vecancy for infectious disease, embryo transfer, development of novel techniques in animal breeding through genetic engineering at gameter orgdnod lavel transgenic animals, production of growth hormone by DNA technology, etc. And in animals, it provides a cheap, fast and simple method with fue side effects.this technique will have an impact on effort to reduce the population of low grade genetic stock of a little economic value.
The application of biotechnology in the area of animal husbandry in increase production efficiency, through manipulation and control of physiology and for promoting better health care through bio pharmaceuticals is worth noting. Embryo transfer technology will enhance animal production in the years to come.it would also boost animal productivity by improved new feeds and fodder through bioconversion processes, tissue culture and other genetic techniques respectively. Along with this number of non conventional food constituents like single cell protein, sweetener, edible oils, etc. And food additives like vitamins, amino acid etc, have been and can be generated through biotechnological processes. It can also be used for better processing of food.
Today among the most pressing problem faced by our country in the population explosion. What we have got to do is to adopt family planning. Towards this government opened up numerous programs with different techniques. Now a novice programme called “immunological approach to fertility control” have been devised. The objectives of the project is to develop safest, cost effective, efficacious, long lasting and reversible contraceptive vaccines using immunological approaches. The National institute of immunology has developed a candidate vaccine for the failure of pregnancy.
Dipawali full potential implicit in three revolutionary techniques has focus everyone’s attention on the biotechnological industry and significant investment has been made in this area since early eighties. The impact is being realise with the range of products and process being introduce in such a areas as agriculture, forestry, horticulture, medicine, health chemical industry, food industry, pollution control and environment. There is a promise of the technological progress, but the question marks about the sustainability of this progress in view of the the fragilityour environment and biological Heritage cell for nobel technological solution in an eco friendly manner.